Ask an herbalist: When is the best time to take herbs?

You’re not the first person to have questions about herbs and herbalism. So, we brought in one of our experts to help answer some of the most common questions and concerns. David Bunting, Herb Pharm’s VP of Botanical Affairs, began studying herbalism in 1979 and has been making herbal medicines professionally since 1982.
Continue reading “Ask an herbalist: When is the best time to take herbs?”

Ask an herbalist: What is an herbal extract?

You’re not the first person to have questions about herbs and herbalism. So, we brought in one of our experts to help answer some of the most common questions and concerns. David Bunting, Herb Pharm’s VP of Botanical Affairs, began studying herbalism in 1979 and has been making herbal medicines professionally since 1982.

Question: What is an herbal extract?

Although herbal extracts come in many forms, they have one common feature. Extracts represent naturally occurring phytochemicals (plant produced compounds) that have been removed from the inert structural material of the plant that produced them. The main advantage of using extracts over raw herb is that once extracted from the plant matrix, the phytochemicals bypass the need for digestion and are far more readily absorbable.  Liquid extracts also offer greater convenience than consuming an herb in its raw form.

Extracts are typically categorized by the solvent used to make them and/or by their form. Some of the more common solvents that are used include water, alcohol, glycerin, and vinegar. The inherent qualities of each of these solvents will attract different phytochemicals in an herb. Watery extracts made by infusion or decoction are used as teas, rinses and the base for syrups and other products.

Tinctures are liquid extracts made with alcohol and may include other food-grade solvents. Alcohol extracts a wide range of phytochemicals and is an excellent preservative. It may also be diluted with water to adjust alcohol content and glycerin may be added to curb excessive precipitation of the finished extract.

Food-grade glycerin is a low glycemic index sweetener often used as a solvent to make alcohol-free liquid extracts. While most glycerites lack appreciable alcohol, intermediate extraction may be carried out with alcohol on occasion. In this case alcohol is used to form the initial extract, and is then removed from the finished product with glycerin added in its place.

Vinegars are not common, but are experiencing a bit of resurgence in popularity. These are made by extracting herbs directly in vinegar. Apple cider or other plant based vinegars are most desirable in this case.

Oils are fatty oils that have been infused with herbs for topical use and may be called herbal oils or infused oils. The fatty oil used as a base is commonly from olive, sesame or coconut, although many other sources may be used.

Essential oils are the volatile components that have been separated from an aromatic herb. Quality essential oils are either steam distilled or, in the case of herbs like citrus peel, pressed directly from the fresh herb. Essential oils are very strong preparations and are well diluted for internal use.

Powdered extracts are formed by drying liquid extracts including tinctures and water extracts, often under vacuum. Powdered extracts are most commonly used in capsules and tablets. Because the solvent is removed from the final product, some powdered extracts are made with solvents other than ethanol and water. Solvent labeling is not required on powdered extracts, but transparent labeling will include the solvent(s) used. Traces of solvents will remain in the extract, which should be tested.

Supercritical extracts are made by extracting herbs with a gas, usually carbon dioxide, at low temperature and high pressure to bring it into the supercritical state. These are semi-solid extracts representing the fat-soluble components of an herb that are generally seen in softgel form.

Ask an herbalist: What is an herbal tincture?

You’re not the first person to have questions about herbs and herbalism. So, we brought in one of our experts to help answer some of the most common questions and concerns. David Bunting, Herb Pharm’s VP of Botanical Affairs, began studying herbalism in 1979 and has been making herbal medicines professionally since 1982.

Question: What is an herbal tincture?

Tinctures are liquid extracts that are made with potable alcohol as all or part of the combined extraction solvent, known as the menstruum. Following the extractive process, the tincture is then separated from the spent herb and is typically filtered. From there it is bottled as a single herb extract or blended with other tinctures to form a compound product. Tinctures are convenient and easily dosed according to labeled instructions.

The alcohol used in tinctures is the same ethanol produced by fermentation that you find in beer and wine. Alcohol acts as an excellent solvent for a wide variety of phytochemicals, especially those that have limited solubility in water. It is also an excellent preservative, so that tinctures typically last several years. Like other extracts, tinctures bypass the need to digest entire herbs in the gut and are easily absorbed. While the term “tincture” is sometimes applied to liquid extracts made without alcohol, technically only liquid extracts made with alcohol are tinctures.

The extraction menstruum can be tailored for each herb to best extract its unique phytochemical profile with an emphasis on known actives. This is done by using other components such as water to dilute the alcohol concentration. When starting with the highest concentration of naturally distilled alcohol, this gives a possible alcohol percentage range of about 20 to 95%. That range can accommodate extraction of more water-soluble polysaccharides all the way to highly alcohol-soluble resins. The menstruum can also be composed of other ingredients such as glycerin, which is used to curb precipitation. Since the menstruum becomes part of the finished extract, every component must be food grade and/or pharmaceutical grade.

4 questions with Cassandra our herb buyer

Cassandra is both an herbalist and an herb buyer

What exactly is an herb buyer?

I coordinate with our Farm manager on all the herbs we grow ourselves and what our needs will be for the year. Whatever we don’t grow ourselves, I have to find from other suppliers. I manage all the details of getting herb in for production: contracts, forecasts, schedules, transport, and making sure the suppliers meet our quality standards.
Ultimately, for a lot of growers and wildcrafters, I’m the person at Herb Pharm they know. And the one to help sort out any issues that come up. Continue reading “4 questions with Cassandra our herb buyer”